Relative Clause (geniş anlatım ) ADJECTIVE / RELATIVE CLAUSES Study the table. ADJECTIVE CLAUSE A person A person A man A car The car The village who knows English well whose English is good whom everybody likes which / that has two doors which / that I use where I was born can get a job easily. can get a job easily. is a good one. is not practical. belongs to my father. is near Milas. The use of relative pronouns in adjective clauses: In the examples in the table above, you see that the clauses written in bold define the words a person, a man, a car, the car and the village as an adjective. The kinds of clauses are called adjective clauses. An adjective clause begins with a relative pronoun who, whom, whose or which / that. When describing a place, the adjective clause begins with where. Written, formal English Spoken, everyday informal English This is the driver whom I wanted to see. This is the driver to whom I gave the purse. This is the school to which I go This is the driver that I wanted to see. This is the driver that I gave the purse to. This is the school that I go to. (1) Further examples: This is the driver who(m) / that I want to speak to. (object) (2) This is the driver who / that ran over my cat. (subject) (3) This is the driver to whom I gave the large tip. (indirect object) (formal) This is the driver who I gave the large tip to. (indirect object-informal version of the sentence above.) (less formal) I know the driver whose son goes to school with your son. (possessive) This is the the dog which barks all night. (subject) This is the dog which I wish would sleep at night. (object) This is the airport from which we will fly. (object of a preposition) (formal) This is the airport we’ll fly from. (less formal version of above sentence) (informal) This is the hotel in which we’ll stay. (formal) This is the hotel we are staying in. (informal) This is the restaurant to which we’ll go this evening. (formal) This is the restaurant we’ll go to this evening. (informal) A chair is a thing on which we sit. (formal) The preposition at the end of the sentence is informal. When the preposition is at the end, we can use that instead of whom or which. That is always used informally instead of who in the subject position. (3) The use of relative pronouns in adjective clauses A chair is a thing which we sit on. (less formal) A chair is a thing we sit on. (informal) This is the bus whose driver drives likes a maniac. (possessive – less formal) This is the bus of which the air conditioning doesn’t work. (possessive – formal) Kinds of adjective clauses Adjective clauses can be classified according to the function of the relative pronoun in the clause. Adjective clauses whose relative pronouns are used as a subject In the examples, you see that the adjective clauses begin with who or which. An adjective clause whose subject is who or which has the same meaning as the Turkish verbs which can be made into adjectives by using the Turkish suffix –en or –an such as ‘gelen adam, çalışan çocuk. NOTE: Pay attention to the fact that, who stands for the subject for the subject they (referring to the robbers); which represents the subject it (referring to the dog.) When the relative pronoun is in the subject position, it can’t be omitted. Adjective clauses whose relative pronouns are used as a object As you see in the examples, whom and which are the objects of the adjective clauses. An adjective clause whose object is whom or which has the same meaning as the Turkish verbs derived by using the suffix –dık: aldığım mektup, gördüğüm adam. Whom is the object form of the relative pronoun who. It is rarely used in speech. In written English it may be considered more correct than who. Whom is often used with a preposition. If whom is used, the preposition comes before it: If who is used, the preposition comes at the end of the sentence. NOTE: Pay attention to the fact that who(m) stands for the object him and which represents the object it referring to the letter. The relative pronoun can often be ommitted if it is the object of the sentence. Adjective clauses beginning with ‘who’ or ‘which’ Read the newspaper extract, looking at the use of the adjective clauses in bold. Boy Bites Dog The people who were waiting for the 5 o’clock İzmir bus saw something which they will probably never forget. Suddenly a large dog that had been quitely sleeping on the pavement woke up, started growling for no apparent reason, and began to attack a small boy who was cleaning shoes nearby. Everyone thought that the dog must have had rabies. People screamed in horror and one man who was very brave tried to grab the dog by its tail. However, they needn’t have worried. The small shoeshine boy who had once been a shepherd boy was used to fierce dogs. He was more than a match for the animal. The boy bit a piece off the dog’s ear. The dog which was by then covered in blood quickly ran away. The police who promptly came on the scene later found the the dog and shot it. veterinary surgeons carried out tests which confirmed that the dog did not have rabies. Adjective clauses beginning with ‘who’ or ‘which’ Fill in the blanks with an appropriate relative pronoun.