GRAMMAR LESSON NOTES & Exercises BOOK : New Bridge To Success New Beginners UNIT : 19 GRADE : Y-9 TOPICS : Present Perfect Tense FULL NAME : key CLASS : NO : THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE The Present Perfect Tense expresses actions or events that began in the past and are still true or appropriate in the present time, or are now finished. The Present Perfect Tense is also used to tell about something which happened in the past but the exact time of the action isn’t known. We form The Present Perfect with have/has and a past participle. (e.g. open-opened-opened, write-wrote-written, speak-spoke-spoken) THE FORMATION OF PRESENT PERFECT We use the past participle of verbs to form the present perfect tense. The past participle of regular verbs is formed in the same way as in the past tense. The present, Past and Past Participle forms of some irregular verbs are shown below. Fore more examples of irregular verbs see the appendix in your book. Here are some common examples for irregular forms of verbs. Present Form Simple Past Past Participle Be was, were been Break broke broken Come came come Do did done Eat ate eaten Get got gotten(got) Go went gone Have had had Know knew known Leave left left Meet met met Pay paid paid Read read read Ride rode ridden See saw seen Take took taken Write wrote written AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS NEGATIVE STATEMENTS SUBJECT HAVE/HAS PAST PARTICIPLE FORM OF VERB SUBJECT HAVE/HAS NOT PAST PARTICIPLE FORM OF VERB I You We They have walked. I You We They have not (haven’t) walked. He She It has He She It has not (hasn’t) CONTRACTIONS I have I’ve You have You’ve We have We’ve They have They’ve He has He’s She has She’s It has It’s Slept on the couch. QUESTIONS: AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS NEGATIVE STATEMENTS SUBJECT HAVE/HAS PAST PARTICIPLE FORM OF VERB SUBJECT HAVE/HAS NOT PAST PARTICIPLE FORM OF VERB I You We They have walked. I You We They have not (haven’t) walked. He She It has He She It has not (hasn’t) USAGE: 1) We use the present Perfect for a past action whose time is not mentioned and has a relation to the present. We are not interested in its time but the action itself. I have never been to London. I have read ‘Hamlet’. I have never seen a famous person. Have you ever played chess? She has seen the Bosphorus Bridge. NOTE: The question word ‘when’ is only used with Past Simple. We cannot use it with Present Perfect. When did you arrive? (When have you arrived?) 2) We often use The Present Perfect Tense for actions which happened in the past and that have an effect or a result in the present. I’ve washed my hair.(My hair is wet now.) The party has finished. (The house is untidy ) Oh no! You have broken your arm. (His arm is in plaster.) The teacher has just gone out. (The teacher is not here) Rabia has cut her finger. (Her finger is bleeding) 3) We use it for an action which began in the past and is still happening now. I have seen him this morning. ( It is still morning ) My grandparents have lived in Gördes for sixty years. (They are still living in Gördes.) Have you been busy this month? ( It is still the same month ) The expressions commonly used with The present Perfect They have just come They have already come. Have you ever been to Istanbul? She has never loved you. It has rained a lot this week/month/year... It has rained a lot today How long have you studied English? They haven’t gone to the cinema yet. Burhan Bey hasn’t been to India so far. Ayhan hasn’t played backgammon recently. Alan has worked as a waiter since the beginning of the year. The children have played in the park for two hours. SINCE – FOR We can use the present perfect tense with ‘for’ and ‘since’ to talk about actions and events that take place in a period of time from the past until now. FOR: We use ‘for’ to talk about a period of time continuing up to the present. It is used with length of time (e.g. four years, two months, etc) Oct Nov Dec Jan Now Past 1 2 3 4 We have lived in Manisa for four months. For four months SINCE: Since is used with to give the starting point of actions and situations that continue up to the moment of speaking. It is a point in time. (E.g. June, 1976, etc.). Oct Nov Dec Jan Now Past 1 2 3 4 We have lived in Manisa since October. Common structures with “for” and “since” for a day ten months three weeks six years two hours a long time several hours since 1990 May last year Christmas yesterday my wedding day she left you yesterday then I was born EXAMPLE SENTENCES: Nurhan has been ill for two weeks. They have not seen my son since the beginning of the year. I haven’t lived in İzmir since 1974. I haven’t been to Germany since I got married. There has been a great rise in prices in the last seven months. The housing problem has grown bigger in the past few years. I last saw him in September. I have not seen him since then. We haven’t heard from him since he phoned us a month ago. He left school in 1987. I haven’t seen him since. OTHER STRUCTURES WITH PRESENT PERFECT TENSE It is + a period of time + since + Simple past It is three months since I last went to the cinema. It is five years since I ate quince. How long is it since we last met each other . * A negative isn’t used after this structure. It is 5 years since I didn’t eat quince. This is the first time + Present Perfect I am very excited now. This is the first time I have driven a car. This is the third exam we have taken so far this term. This is the first time I have seen Bursa. This is + superlative + Present Perfect This is the most boring book I have ever read. Hülya Avşar is the most beautiful lady I have ever seen. Present Perfect + since + Present Perfect I haven’t visited her since she has been in hospital. (She is still in hospital) Last and The last I have been here since last week. (It means a point in time about seven days ago) I have been here for the last week. (It means the period of seven days just completed) When, if unless ......... + Present Perfect, Present/Imperative or future Please let me know when you have finished reading the book. I will start studying after I have watched the football match on TV. GONE & BEEN Look at the difference between these two sentences. *George has been to Spain. He’s now at home again. *George has gone to Spain. He’s in Spain now. ‘He has been’ means he has finished his trip and turned back home. ‘He has gone’ means he has begun his trip. Look at this example in order to see the difference more clearly. A: Where’s Julie? B: She’s away. She’s gone to Paris. Julie has gone to Paris. She is in Paris now. Two weeks later. Adam: Hello, Julie! Julie: Hello, I’ve been on holiday. I’ve been to Paris. (Julie has been to Paris. She went to Paris but now she’s back.) PRESENT PERFECT WITH ‘JUST’, ‘YET’, ‘ALREADY’ ‘EVER’ ‘EVER’ JUST: The adverb ‘just’ is used with the present perfect tense to tell a recently completed action. ‘Just’ comes after the auxiliary verb ‘have/has’. This combination is used chiefly in the affirmative, though the interrogative from is possible. It isn’t normally used in the negative. The teacher has just gone out. She went out a few minutes ago. The bus has just arrived. Has he just gone out? Mr.Trick has just finished the cake. Yes, he has. ALREADY: The adverb ‘already’ is used when something has happened before we expected. ‘Already’ comes after the auxiliary verb ‘have/has. We use ‘already’ in affirmative. I’ve already written a letter to my friend. She’s already finished her homework. The policemen have already arrested the thief. YET: The adverb ‘yet’ is used when we are expecting something to happen but it hasn’t happened. “Yet” comes to the end of the clause. We use ‘yet’ in the negative sentences and in questions. Mrs. Roberts hasn’t replied to my letter yet. (She hasn’t replied but she will). Have you found a job yet? (Perhaps you haven’t found but you’re going to find one). EVER: We use ‘ever’ between the subject and the main verb to ask questions. It’s used for events in a person’s life time or at any time(s) up until now. We must go on with Simple Past if the answer is YES. -A: Have you ever attended a competition? Have you ever been to İstanbul? - B: Yes, I have. I attended once. Yes .I went to Istanbul last year. -A: Has your sister ever travelled by train? Has your father ever smoked? - B: Yes, twice. (=two times) No, he hasn’t. ‘Never’ is used in affirmative sentences to answer negatively. -A: Have you ever seen a giraffe? - B: No, I’ve never seen one. (or No, never) Ann has never arrived home on time. I have never eaten Chinese food. Martha has never won a lottery. My grandmother has never gone to doctor. I’ve never visited my grandparents. They have never been to İzmir . Notes: “recently” means ‘ a short time ago ‘ when it is used with Simple Past Tense. They came recently. (They came a short time ago) She passed her exam only recently. (She passed her exam only a short time ago) All my life , in his life , always , occasionally , often , several times , once , twice ...etc are some of the commonly used expressions . I have always got up early. (Her zaman erken kalkmışımdır ) I have never ridden on an elephant in my life. Burhan has been to İstanbul twice. Note: Time expressions can also be used with Simple Past Tense. My father has lived in his hometown all his life. (He is alive) My father lived in his home town all his life. (He is dead now) She has invited me to her house many times but I have never had any spare time She invited me to her house many times during my stay in England, but I never had any spare time. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PRESENT PERFECT & SIMPLE PAST 1) We use the present perfect for actions or happenings which are connected with the present time. For Example: I have lost my umbrella. (He hasn’t got his umbrella now.) Ann has gone to England. (She is in England or on her way there.) They have forgotten my name. (They cannot remember it now.) He has grown a beard. (He has a beard now.) I have smoked ten cigarettes today. (I perhaps will smoke more) She has seen John in the morning. (It is still morning.) 2) We use the simple past to talk about actions or happenings in the past. It is not connected with the present time. For Example: Mr. Brown died four years ago. (He is not in life now.) I lost my key last night. (Perhaps later I found it.) It rained yesterday. (It isn’t raining now.) He grew a moustache last year. (May be he hasn’t it now.) They called you in the morning. (It is afternoon now.) 3) We often use The present perfect with ever , never , before , since/for...this week /month /year /.... etc For Example: Have you read hamlet before? I have never been to the U.S.A Has she ever travelled in a plane? They have lived in here for seven years. We have studied English since seven o’clock. 4) We often use the simple past with ago, yesterday, last week/month. For Example: I visited my grandmother two years ago. She didn’t go to Izmir yesterday. Alan received a letter from his girl friend last week. 5) We use the present perfect to give new information or announce a recent happening. We normally use the past if we continue. For Example: RUMEYSA: Look. I have burnt myself. İSMAİL : Ow! How did you do that? RUMEYSA: I touched a hot plate. 6) We express our past habits by using the Simple Past Tense, not the Present Perfect. I played with cats when I was a child. He played football when he was at school. The time expression ‘last ........... ‘ is used with Simple Past whereas ‘in the last ( period of time ) is used with Present Perfect . I moved to Selçuk last year. /I have lived in Selçuk in the last two months. A. You are writing a letter to a friend. In the letter you give news about yourself and other people. Use the words given to make sentences. Use the present perfect. Dear Chris, Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you. 1. I/buy/a new car. I have bought a new car. 2. My father/start/a new job My father has started a new job. 3. I/give up/smoking I've given up smoking./I have given 4. Can and Sevgi/go/to Bodrum. Can and Sevgi have gone to Bodrum. 5. Suzanne/have/a baby Suzanne has had a baby. B. Read the situations and write sentences. Choose one of the following: arrive break go up grow improve lose 1. Mike is looking for his key. He can't find it. He has lost his key. She has broken her leg./She's broken ... 2. Margaret can't walk and her leg is in plaster. She --- Her English has improved./It has improved./It's improved. 3. Maria's English wasn't very good. Now it is much better. --- He has grown a beard./He's grown ... 4. Tim didn't have a beard last month. Now he has a beard. --- The letter has arrived./It has arrived./It's arrived. 5. This morning I was expecting a letter. Now I have it. --- The bus fare has gone up./It has gone up./It's gone up. 6. Last week the bus fare was 80 pence. Now it is 90. --- C. Complete B’s sentences. Use the verb in brackets + just/already/yet 1. A: Would you like something to eat? B: No, thanks. I've just had lunch. (just/have) 2. A: Do you know where Julia is? B: Yes, I’ve just seen/have just seen her. (just/see) 3. A: What time is David leaving? B: He 's already left/has already left (already/leave) 4. A: What's in the newspaper today? B: I don't know. I haven't read it yet (not/read/yet) 5. A: Is Ann coming to the cinema with us? B: No, she’s already seen/has already seen the film. (already/see) 6. A: Are your friends here yet? B: Yes, they've just arrived/have just arrived (just/arrive) 7. A: What does Tim think about your plan? B: I haven't told him yet (not/tell/yet) D. Read the situations and write sentences with just, already or yet. 1. After lunch you go to see a friend at her house. She says 'Would you like something to eat?' You say: No, thank you. I've just had lunch. (have lunch) 2. Joe goes out. Five minutes later, the phone rings and the caller says 'Can I speak to Joe?' You say: I'm afraid he's just gone out/he has just gone out (go out) 3. You are eating in a restaurant. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away. You say: Wait a minute! I haven't finished yet. (not/finish) 4. 4. You are going to a restaurant this evening. You phone to reserve a table. Later your friend says 'Shall I phone to reserve a table?' You say: No I've already done/I have already done it. (do) 5. You know that a friend of yours is looking for a job. Perhaps she has been successful. Ask her. You say: Have you found a job yet? (find) 6. Ann went to the bank, but a few minutes ago she returned. Somebody asks 'Is Ann still at the bank?' You say: No, she's just come back/she has just come back (come back) E. Put in been or gone. 1. Jim is on holiday. He's gone to Italy. 2. Hello! I've just been to the shops. I've bought lots of things. 3. Alice isn't here at the moment. She's gone to the shop to get a newspaper. 4. Tom has gone out. He'll be back in about an hour. 5. 'Are you going to the bank?' 'No, I've already been to the bank.' F. You are asking somebody questions about things he or she has done. Make questions from the words in brackets. 1. (ever/ride/horse?) Have you ever ridden a horse? 2. (ever/be/California?) Have you ever been to California? 3. (ever/run/marathon?) Have you ever run a marathon? 4. (ever/speak/famous person?) Have you ever spoken to a famous person? 5. (always/live/in this town?) Have you always lived in this town? 6. (most beautiful place/ever/visit?) What … What's the most beautiful place you've ever visited? G. Complete Bs answers. Some sentences are positive and some negative. Use a verb from this list: Be be cat happen have meet play read see see try 1. 1 A: What's George's sister like? B: I've no idea. I've never met her. 2. A: How is Amy these days? B: I don't know. I haven't seen her recently. 3. A: Are you hungry? 3. B: Yes. I haven't eaten much today. 4. A: Can you play chess? B: Yes, but I haven't played (it) for ages. 5. A: Did you enjoy your holiday? B: Yes, it's the best holiday I've had/I have had for a long time. 6. A: What's that book like? B: I don't know I haven't read . 7. A: Is Brussels an interesting place? B: I've no idea I've never been/I haven't been there. 8. A: Mike was late for work again today. B: Again? He has been late/'s been late every day this week. 9. A: Do you like caviar? B: I don't know I've never tried/I have never tried/I've never eaten 10. A: The car broke down again yesterday. B: Not again! That's the second time it's/that’s happened this week. 11. Who's that woman by the door) B: I don't know I've never seen her/I haven't seen her before.) H. Complete these sentences using today/this year/this term etc. 1. I saw Tom yesterday but I haven't seen him today. 2. I read a newspaper yesterday but I haven't read one/a newspaper today. 3. Last year the company made a profit but this year it hasn't made a profit./it has made a loss . 4. Tracy worked hard at school last term but she hasn't worked (very) hard this term . 5. It snowed a lot last winter but it hasn't snowed (much) this winter. 6. Our football team won a lot of games last season but we haven't won many/any games this season . İ. Read the situations and write sentences. 1. Jack is driving a car but he's very nervous and not sure what to do. You ask: Have you driven a car before? He says: No, this is the first time I ‘ve driven a car. 2. Len is playing tennis. He's not very good and he doesn't know the rules. You ask: Have you played tennis before ? He says: No, this is the first time I've played tennis . 3. Sue is riding a horse. She doesn't look very confident or comfortable. You ask: Have you ridden a horse before ? She says: No, this is the first time I've ridden a horse . 4. Maria is in London. She has just arrived and it's very new for her. You ask: Have you been to London before? . She says: No, this is the first time I've been to London . J. Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the simple past tense. 1. This is my house. ~ How long you have you lived/have you been living,(live) here? ~ I have you lived/have you been living, (live) here since 1970. 2. He lived (live) in London for two years and then, went (go) to Edinburgh. 3. You did you wear (wear) your hair long when you were at school? ~ Yes, my mother insisted (insist) on it. 4. But when I left (leave) school I cut (cut) my hair and have worn (wear) it short ever since. 5. Shakespeare wrote (write) a lot of plays. 6. My brother has written (write) several plays. He has just finished (just/finish) his second tragedy. 7. I flew (fly) over Loch Ness last week. ~ did you see (you/see) the Loch Ness monster? 8. I haven't seen (not see) him for three years. I wonder where he is. 9. He hasn't smoked (not smoke) for two weeks. He is trying to give it up. 10. Chopin composed (compose) some of his music in Majorca. 11. When did he arrive he (arrive)? ~ He arrived (arrive) at 2.00. 12. Did you lock (you/lock) the door before you left the house? 13. I read (read) his books when I was at school. I enjoyed (enjoy) them very much. 14. I can't go out because I haven't finished (not finish) my work. 15. I have never drunk (never/drink) whisky. ~ 16. I have written (write) the letter but I can't find a stamp. 17. The clock is slow. ~ It isn't slow, it has stopped (stop). 18. Here are your shoes; I have just cleaned (just/clean) them. 19. I left (leave) home at 8.00 and got (get) here at twelve. 20. I did (do) this sort of work when I was (be) an apprentice. 21. He has just gone (just/go) out. 22. He went (go) out ten minutes ago. 23. Have you had (you/have) breakfast yet? ~ Yes, I had (have) it at 8.00. 24. I met (meet) him last June. 25. Did you see (you/see) the moon last night? 26. The concert began (begin) at 2.30 and lasted (last) for two hours. Everyone enjoyed (enjoy) it very much. 27. The play has just begun (just/begin). You are a little late. 28. Has the newspaper come (the newspaper/come)? ~ Yes, Ann is reading it. 29. The actors arrived (arrive) yesterday and started (start) rehearsals early this morning. 30. It has been (be) very cold this year. I wonder when it is going to get warmer. 31. Cervantes wrote (write) Don Quixote. 32. We have missed (miss) the bus. Now we'll have to walk. 33. He broke (break) his leg in a skiing accident last year. 34. Mr Pound is the bank manager. He has been (be) here for five years. 35. Mr Count worked (work) as a cashier for twenty-five years. Then he retired (retire) and went (go) to live in the country. 36. Have you been (you/be) here before? ~ Yes, I spent (spend) my holidays here last year. ~ Did you have (you/have) a good time? ~ No, it never stopped (stop) raining. 37. Where is Tom? I haven't seen (not see) him today. 38. I bought (buy) this in Bond Street. ~ How much you did you pay (pay) for it? ~ I paid (pay) £100. 39. Where you did you find (find) this knife? ~ I found (find) it in the garden. ~ Why didn't you leave (you/not leave) it there? 40. I have lost (lose) my black gloves. have you seen (you/see) them anywhere? ~ No, I'm afraid I haven't . When did you last wear . (when/last/you/wear) them? ~ I wore (wear) them at the theatre last night. ~ Perhaps you left (leave) them at the theatre. 41. Do you know that lady who just has just left (leave) the shop? ~ Yes, that is Miss Thrift. Is she a customer of yours? ~ Not exactly. She has been (be) in here several times but she has never bought (never/buy) anything. 42. He left (leave) the house at 8.00. ~ Where he did he go (go)? ~ I didn't see (not see) where he went (go). 43. He served (serve) in the First World War. ~ When did that war begin (when/that war/begin)? ~ It began (begin) in 1914 and lasted (last) for four years. 44. Did you like (you/like) your last job? ~ I liked (like) it at first but then I quarreled (quarrel) with my employer and he dismissed (dismiss) me. ~ How long were (you/be) there? ~ I was (be) there for two weeks. 45. I didn't know (not know) that you knew (know) Mrs Pitt. How long have you known (how long/you/know) her? ~ I have known (know) her for ten years. Yesterday, All those backups seemed a waste of pay. Now my database has gone away. Oh, I believe in yesterday. Suddenly, There's not half the files there used to be, And there's a millstone hanging over me. The system crashed so suddenly. I pushed something wrong What it was I could not say. Now all my data's gone and I long for yesterday-ay-ay-ay. Yesterday, The need for back-ups seemed so far away. I knew my data was all here to stay. Oh, I believe in yesterday.